Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes

by on February 1st, 2011
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The major difference between euks and pros is that euks have genetic material encased in a nucleus while pros do not have genetic material encased in a nucleus per se. Prokaryotes have a higher growth rate than euks. This canbe interpreted as a lesser organism, because prokaryotes have a shorter generation time and reproduce more instead of more efficiently, like eukaryotes. Euks contain considerably more complex organelles. So it is my belief that eukaryotes are not necessarily functionally different than prokaryotes, as the functionof all organisms is survival. However, eukaryotes are more subject to cytoplasmic streaming and tend to be more complex life forms. This larger level of functionality correlates with their larger size.
The reasoning behind the larger complexity also involves the endosymbiotic theory. In summary, prokaryotes were eaten by eukaryotes but were not fully digested, and the two became mutually dependent on one another. Both the chloroplast and mitochondria might have occured this way. It was beneficial to the host cell because it allowed for extra energy from the “mitochondria,” and a host might benefit from eating a cyanobacteria because they are photosynthetic (chloroplasts). This would explain why these organelles have their own DNA. In addition, movement of eukaryotes may have been influenced by a symbiosis between spiral-shaped bacteria and eukaryotes.
2. The first thing that came to mind was mushrooms, Saccharomyces and soy sauce aspergillus. Certain fungi can be used as natural pesticides. They are economically important because a decrease in supply would cause an increase in price. But others have been more vital to health and science, namely penicillum. Cheese is also derived from fermenting penicillum with dairy products.
Kelp can be harvested for algin. Brown algae produces alginates; which are used in various food products as an emulsifier. Red algae also has food applications in the form of carrageenan, which helps foods keep stable in their physical state. Algae itself can also be used as in entrees and in fertilizer.
http://www.nmnh.si.edu/botany/projects/algae/economicuses.htm
3. Molds are pretty macroscale. The easiest way would be to classify their genus under a normal microscope by observing its physical characteristics. Hyphae (roots) can be characterized using a textbook. After this, take into consideration what medium the mold is on (bread and acidic tomatoes).
4. Often one hears discusses on TV about the new cervical cancer vaccine that helps eliminate 70% human herpes viruses. An article released in the journal Current Biology hypothesizes that chromosomal instability is caused by viral fusion. Wait… what? Well, cancer is chromosomal instability. Viral fusion in oncogenes, or proteins that code for cancer that are at mini-war with tumor suppressor genes, causes randomness in genetic code. 0ther viruses that can cause cancer are the JC viruses, and the remainder of the HHVs and AIDS-opportunistic viral infections. There are additional theories of cancer transformation, but the Current Biology theory is the most recent.
5. It’s pretty clear in my mind that viruses are just lazy bacteria. They do not expend energy, and this allows them to “hunt” for a host indefinitely. This link is demonstrated by several bacteria, including Chlamydia, which can only reproduce inside the host cell it has infected. Not only are they the ideal parasite, they should have been the first organism to use DNA.


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